Experienced facilitators understand both the challenge and value of getting a group to focus on the same thing at the same time. For most project-related meetings, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provides a simple method to increase focus. Given Goldblatt’s Triple Constraint Theory, risk can be mitigated through focused discussion on the cost, schedule, and scope of discrete portions of the project rather than the entire project at once.
Work Breakdown Structure represents a method that groups the project’s distinct work elements to help organize and define the total work scope of the project. While many experts suggest that a Work Breakdown Structure element may be a product, data, a service, or any combination; at a detailed level strive to use verbs, terms that represent the work and activity that needs to be completed. Work Breakdown Structure also provides framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control. Additionally WBS provides a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager.
Each descending level of the Work Breakdown Structure represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work. As you can see in this illustrative Work Breakdown Structure for building a house, work is broken down into separate elements of work, the total sum of which represents all the work necessary to build the house.
In summary, the Work Breakdown Structure:
- Ensures you have defined the significant aspects that make up the project
- Provides a framework for organizing and managing project scope
- Provides feedback for planning and controlling costs and scheduling
Work Breakdown Structure Benefits for Portfolio or Program Management
When you have numerous projects being performed simultaneously, each project competes for the limited resources available. The Work Breakdown Structure enables you to review project details and distinguish one project’s needs from others within your organization. Therefore, you are better enabled to identify resource requirements and allocate resources more effectively.
Preparing a Work Breakdown Structure
Here are some suggested steps for preparing a Work Breakdown Structure:
- Always start with the end in mind, the project deliverable. Identify final project products necessary for achieving project success.
- Identify the major aspects necessary for project completion and success.
- These are items that by themselves do not complete the project need but, when combined, make up a successful project
- Examples shown previously include structural, electrical, and plumbing
- Build out additional levels of detail until requirements for managing and controlling the project are met.
- Remember that each project is different, thus each WBS will be different
- WBS’s from previous projects can be used as templates, but remember that the management philosophy and the level of details may be different from project to project
- Understand your controlling and reporting requirements
- Review and refine the Work Breakdown Structure until the stakeholders agree with the level of project planning and reporting.
- Remember that no matter how detailed your WBS is, there are planning and reporting restrictions a WBS creates.
- See below for an example of the detail you need contrasted with what management may need for reviews.
In developing a Work Breakdown Structure, realize that there are multiple ways to develop a WBS for any given project. Some ways might be better than others, but the two most important items are:
- The Work Breakdown Structure must contain all approved scope and
- The Project Manager must develop the Work Breakdown Structure to reflect the way you intend to manage the project.
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